Day 2 :
- Special Session on Giant Freshwater Prawn Networking, Farming Innovation and Stock Conservation
Institute of Tropical Aquaculture
Title: Special Session on Giant Freshwater Prawn Networking, Farming Innovation and Stock Conservation
Time : 10:45-11:45
Shahreza Md. Sheriff has completed his PhD in 2008 from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia in the field of genetic. He is currently the deputy director of Institute of Tropical Aquaculture, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu and also a lecturer in the School of Fisheries and Aquaculture Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. He specializes in fish genetics and breeding focusing on broodstock management for genetic improvement of aquaculture species. Currently he is working on genetic analysis on Malaysian golden arowana (Scleropages formosus) dan tiger grouper
Giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii output from pond production has been on a declining phase for the last few years because of several issues concerning farm production and marketing. Despite some innovative farming methods like all male monosex culture adopted by various farmers towards achieving the peak output level, recurrence of several episodes of diseases together with deteriorated water quality and marketing problems adversely affected the sector. Farming of M. rosenbergii gained prominence in the late 1990s as the demand for prawns was increasingly felt as an alternative to the tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, the farming of which had suffered heavy losses from viral epidemics, and many legal regulations restricting production. The advantage of M. rosenbergii farming in promoting rural livelihood and food security is well known. The relatively less intensive farming operations and low stocking densities used, besides lower costs of production compared to marine shrimps enable this prawn to be a good choice for sustaining rural populations. Apart from the diseases, water quality and marketing issues, the recent introduction of the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei into the market is also believed to have affected the prospects of M. rosenbergii because farmers tend to focus on the former as a more profitable enterprise and its farming is being expanded even to freshwater areas. Because the farming areas have reduced very much and many hatcheries have diverted to production of P. monodon and L. vannamei, there is an increased demand for the M. rosenbergii seed for farming in the remaining culture areas, although production issues in the hatcheries still remain unresolved. Thus, a special session to discuss about M. rosenbergii aquaculture and fisheries with specific objectives is to be proposed during this coming Aquaculture Summit 2016. This proposed session will specifically focused on three objectives; i) to form an international research networking group on M. rosenbergii, ii) to discuss recent findings and further research directions on M. rosenbergii and iii) to formulated a purposed international research grant working on M. rosenbergii culture. The theme for this special session is “Giant Freshwater Prawn networking, farming innovation and stock conservation”. Scientists, researchers, industry practitioners and academicians related to M. rosenbergii are expected to attend this proposed session.
- Track 2:Aquaculture Engineering & Waste Management
Track 4: Equipments for Aquaculture & Fisheries
Track 5: Sea Food
Track 6: Seaweeds and Algal Aquaculture
Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)
Time : 11:45-12:10
Debashish Mazumder is a Senior Research Scientist in the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) with more than 20 years of experience in aquaculture and aquatic ecology. He also holds adjunct academic positions at the University of New South Wales (UNSW), Macquarie University (both within Australia) and Beijing Forestry University, China. His area of expertise includes using nuclear and isotopic techniques to quantify the impacts of water management, land use and climate variability on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems and to maximise the benefit of aquaculture operations. From 1990 to 1999, he worked with the WorldFish Centre to improve the production and management of aquaculture in Bangladesh. Since 2006, he has been collaborating with universities and government agencies in Australia, PNG, Malaysia and China on various environmental and aquaculture projects. He is an Associate Editor of WETLANDS, and published a significant number of peer reviewed journal papers and scholarly book chapters on stable isotopes.
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food producing sector globally. Future growth of aquaculture depends on a more ecologically sound management practice. The dietary effects on nutrient assimilation, isotopic turnover rates and discrimination factors were assessed using exponential models to determine the influence of microalgal diets on the growth and survival of hatchery-reared Pacific oyster larvae. Of the four dietary treatments used, larvae fed Chaetoceros calcitrans and a mixed diet had the best growth and high survival. Isotopic analysis of tilapia muscle tissue and all potential dietary sources from daily and weekly fed tilapia ponds suggests that natural feed such as detritus, algae and zooplankton appear to be favored more by tilapia than formulated feed. After 90 days of cultivation, the average final body weight of tilapia receiving daily feed inputs was 134 g while in weekly feed it was 92 g. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was very high in the daily fed tilapia compared to a small FCR in the weekly fed ponds. Feed input cost for the weekly feeding treatment was much less than the daily feeding treatment. Isotopic techniques have the potential to develop cost-effective environment friendly aquaculture.
Integrated Information Systems
Stavros Platsis is the Sales & Marketing Director of Manager Aquaculture Software. He graduated from the American College of Greece with a degree in Marketing and B.A. He established three successful firms in the fields of Advertising and Marketing, Film Music Industry and International Trade. He was one of the first to analyze and support the commercialization of Stevia as a natural sugar substitute in the Greek market with three design awarded innovations. He entered the aquaculture industry next to his mentor Mr Kostas Seferis in order to assist the penetration of smart information systems, like aquamanager aquaculture software, toward a more environmentally friendly, more efficient and better controlled production all over the world.
Although globally the aquaculture is one of the most rapid growing livestock production sector, however there are major challenges that have to be addressed concerning the improvement of the production, reducing the expenses, ensuring simultaneously the environment sustainability, the high quality food and animal welfare. The efficient confrontation of the aforementioned issues is the adoption innovative technologies which are capable to analyse and reveal potentially useful knowledge hidden in the accumulated data of aquaculture enterprises. The AquaSmart Horizon 2020 Project brigdes the gap between aquaculture sector and technological achievements on the field of Data Mining. This paper presents a use case demonstrating the conversion of data to actionable knowledge focusing in the problem of the evaluation of the feeding and the management of the fish. To address this multi-factor problem, aquacultures probe the behavior of FCR together with features such as SGR, SFR, the temperature, the production time etc in periodic datasets from sampling to sampling. The aim is to provide to fish farmers a reliable system that is able to recommend and also interpret the expected and unexpected behaviors of the fish batches during their growth. Specifically, on one hand the system provides to aquafarmer an automated suggestion of which batches or units exhibit unexpected FCR value comparing with the estimated by the model FCR value, so as to take further corrections. On the other hand, by considering and quantifying the interaction between all the relevant factors affecting the production process, we can investigate how the FCR can inform and enhance the production management process.
Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute
Title: Indian edible oyster Crassostrea madrasensis (Preston), a promising bivalve for aquaculture amidst the challenges of global warming and climate change as revealed through thermo tolerance studies
Time : 12:35-01:00
Temperature tolerance of a species is an indicator which determines its potential to persist or become extinct in response to climate change and the related environmental challenges. Identifying the winner species which can withstand the increasing biotic and abiotic challenges is essential for sustainable culture practices and thereby to ensure food for future. Aquaculture of the Indian edible oyster (Crassostrea madrasensis) is becoming more popular along the Indian coasts. Hence, knowledge on the level of thermo tolerance, its enhancement through thermal induction and the molecular mechanism behind it shall be of immense use for the scientific management of the system to ensure sustainable production. The oysters with size ranging from 70-80 mm collected from the oyster farm were acclimated in aerated sea water with salinity 22 ppt, temperature 280°C to 300°C and fed with micro algae nannochloropsis and isochrysis. The maximum temperature at which the oysters show tolerance and survive without mortality and the temperature at which almost all animals succumbed to death are referred as sub lethal temperature (SLT) and lethal temperature (LT) respectively. SLT and LT were determined as 44 0°C and 470°C respectively by exposing the acclimated oysters to temperatures ranging from 370°C to 470°C for one hour and monitoring the survival in normal acclimation temperature (280°C) for one week. Transcriptomic analysis of oysters recovering from SLT has shown a statistically significant up regulation of genes coding for heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and super oxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD). The oysters recovering from sub lethal shock (SLT) at 440°C were found to be resistant to the subsequent lethal temperature (LT) shock (470°C) while the control animals lacking previous exposure to SLT succumbed to death. The phenomenon of induced tolerance was evident and the oysters recovering from SLT were able to survive LT up to 26 days which stands as record duration ever reported. As reported earlier, the oysters surviving high temperatures would also survive the parasitic and microbial infection through the phenomenon of cross tolerance. The study has revealed the special potential of Indian edible oyster (Crassostrea madrasensis) in thermo tolerance and induced enhanced thermo tolerance over its European and western counter parts such as Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea virginica. Thus, the Indian edible oyster (Crassostrea madrasensis) could be projected as a winner species with the ability to survive the challenges posed by climate change and related issues.
Cagayan State University–Aparri Campus
Title: Polyculture of freshwater clam Batissa violacea and genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) Oreochromis niloticus
Time : 01:45-02:10
Eunice A Layugan has completed her PhD in Fisheries (Aquaculture) at the University of the Philippines College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences Miag-ao Iloilo. She is the current Campus Executive Officer of CSU-Aparri Campus, and the former Dean of the College Fisheries and Marine Science and Director for Fisheries Research. She pioneered on endemic Clam Project, B. violacea from Cagayan River, for almost 20 years with almost 25 research studies conducted in various commodities. She is the only researcher entire the Philippines working along this species and was awarded most Outstanding Agricultural Scientist at both Provincial and Regional level in June 2004-2005, July 2011-2012. She presents paper in international, national and local, and has published international journals aside from written manuals, leaflets and patent.
Batissa violacea is a freshwater clam that is commercially important species and prevalent in Cagayan River, Philippines. This clam is the most expensive freshwater clam in Northern Philippines that supports the food supply and economic livelihood of many coastal communities. The population of this species in the wild has been dwindling due to over-exploitation and environmental changes. This study has been conducted to determine the potential of culturing the filter-feeding freshwater clam, B. violacea, with Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. For 120 days, the growth performance of clam juveniles (initial shell length: 31-35 mm) was compared under two culture methods: (1) monoculture with stocking density of 25 clam/m3 (T1),50 clam/m3 (T2), 100 clam/m3 (T3), and 200 clam/m3 (T4);and (2) polyculture in combination with GIFT fingerlings (initial average weight: 10g) added at 20 fish/m3 on each clam stocking density treatment (T1-T4) similar to those in monoculture. The treatments for monoculture and polyculture have three replicates each in Randomized Complete Block Design using 2 x 4 Factorial Design. The results were analyzed using two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The freshwater clam grown in polyculture with tilapia grew faster than those in monoculture. The highest density of 200 clams/m3 (T4) in both polyculture and monoculture showed significantly lower shell length growth compared with the lowest stocking density at 25 clams/m3 (T1); but no significant difference (p>0.05) was found with the stocking densities at 50 clams/m3 (T2) and 100 clams/m3 (T3). The average increase in weight of B. violacea was inversely proportional with stocking density, with the highest weight gain recorded at the lowest density of 25clams/m3 (T1). Although there was variation in growth at different stocking densities and culture methods, the interaction effect between two factors was not significant. Survival rate of B. violaceain polyculture, ranged from 94-97%; while in monoculture, the survival rate ranged from 94-96%. Biomass production was directly related to stocking density in both culture methods.
National Fish Health Research Division
Title: Caligus rotundigenitalis (Copepoda: Caligidae) infestation of crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus) from Sungai Udang, Malaysia: Prevalence and recovery after freshwater bath treatment
Time : 02:10-02:35
Kua Beng Chu completed her PhD at the age of 32 years from University Science of Malaysia (USM) in 2002. She is currently a Senior Research Officer at National Fish Health Research Division (NaFisH) of Fisheries Research Institute under Department of Fisheries Malaysia. Since 1996, she has been involved in research on fish health; focusing in fish parasite, pathology, disease prevention, treatment and management. She has published more than 40 technical papers in reputed journals.
Crustacean parasitic infestation particulary Caligus spp on farmed fish has been reported more frequently in Malaysia since 2008. The infestation usually associated with morbidity and mortality had caused significant economic losses. Freshwater bath has been used as treatment for Caligus sp. However, the effectiveness against copepod Caligus spp infestation had never been reviewed despite high prevalence reported. The study focused on determination of inner operculum caligids C. roundigenitalis prevalence and their recovery percentage after freshwater treatment. Ninety two farmed crimson snapper weighed 11 to 360g were obtained from Sungai Udang cages monthly. Each fish was treated individually with freshwater bath. The number of copepod dislodged from fish and showed no movement after 10 minutes were recorded. The individual copepod was then removed and placed in seawater for determination of recovery percentage. Prevalence ranging from 40 to 90% of C. rotundigenitalis with average mean intensity of 6 copepods C. rotundigenitalis in individual fish were isolated from the crimson snapper. The recovery percentage in seawater of 361 copepod C. rotundigenitalis showed average 45.7% after treated with freshwater bath. The freshwater bath showed that copepod C. rotundigenitalis were able to regain movement after 2 hours in seawater. Further observation on the survival of recovery copepod C. rotundigenitalis showed 44% and 37% after 6 and 24 hours respectively. The findings showed that there was a high posibility of copepod C. rotundigenitalis to re-infect when they are introduced back into the system, leading to recurrence of copepod C. rotundigenitalis in floating cages.
Title: Investigation into the potential use of inland saline groundwater for the production of live feeds for commercial aquaculture purposes
Time : 02:35-03:00
Sadiqul Awal has completed his PhD at the age of 40 years from Deakin University Victoria Australia. He is currently working as a lecturer at Melbourne Polytechnic, Victoria Australia. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as reviwer in many journals. His reserach interest in aquaculture in inland ground saline water, microalgae, and estuarine environmental management.
Traditional agricultural methods and practices have rendered over 100 million hectares of land throughout the world, and over 5.7 million hectares in Australia, unsuitable for most forms of agriculture due to elevated salinity levels. Inland saline aquaculture is an adaptive approach to this environmental problem, and represents a potentially lucrative use for salt-affected land, with many economic, social and environmental benefits possible. Perhaps surprisingly, to date there has been relatively very little research conducted into the suitability (or otherwise) of inland saline aquaculture for the production of various species of microalgae and live feeds, which represent a crucial segment of the aquaculture industry. In this study, these potentials were examined. Initially 9 different species of marine micro algae from three different divisions, namely Chlorophyta, Bascillariophyta and Chrysophyta, were cultivated using batch culture techniques to examine their growth performance in inland saline ground water (ISGW) with f/2 algae culture media. This study expanded on the live feed species being tested to include Artemia (Artemia salina) rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) and copepods (Cyclop ssp). While there were significant differences in the performance of all the tested live feed species, two groups of microalgae showed better growth rates than those observed for natural seawater. It is hoped that these results can be used proactively by farmers seeking to diversify their crops to include the aquaculture of finfish in salt-affected areas of Australia and elsewhere.
Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka
Title: Impacts of habitat quality variation on ichthyofaunal diversity in upper catchment area of Badulu-oya, Sri Lanka
Time : 03:00-03:25
R.M.G.N. Rajapaksha has completed her BSc Honors Degree from Rajarata University of Sri Lanka and currently working as a Lecturer in Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka attached to Aquatic Resources Technology Degree Programme.
Richness of macro and micro habitats is one of the important factors that determine the species richness and species diversity in an aquatic habitat. Badulu-oya, tributary of River Mahaweli is well equiped with diverse habitats ideal for ichthyofauna. Increased anthropogenic activities have been pressued to dilute pristine qualities of the catchment. The study was based on twelve locations along 24 km stretch of the upper catchment of Badulu-oya including four lateral tributaries for eight months period. Ichthyofauna was sampled using medium size seine net, scoop nets and cast net within a 150 m reach in each location as covering 3 types of geomorphic channel units. Epifaunal substrate, embeddedness, pool substrate characterization, velocity/ depth regimes, pool variability, sediment deposition, channel flow status, channel alteration, frequency of riffles, bank stability, vegetative protection, riparian vegetative zone width were considered to assess the habitat quality index (HQI) in each location. A numerical scale of 0 to 20 were assigned for each parameter and ratings were totaled and compared to a reference condition to provide a final habitat ranking. Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H´), Margalef species richness index (Dmg) and Shannon Evenness (E) indexes were calculated for each location. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was performed in order to identify underline patterns of correlations of habitat quality and Ichthyofaunal diversity indexes in different locations. Scores increase as habitat quality increases indicating high HQI have acheived locations which preserved their pristine nature. Nineteen ichthyofaunal species including five endemics, eleven indigenous and three exotic species which belong to 10 families were observed during the survey. Three Diversity indices were significantly differed (P<0.05) spatially. Highest H` (2.56 ± 0.05), Dmg (2.95 ± 0.11) and E (0.91 ± 0.019) were recorded in relatively pristine locations which earn higher scores for HQI. Five principle components (PC) were obtained with eigenvalues >1 summing almost 76% of the total variance in the data set. The PC 1 ansd PC 2 represented 24% and of 20 % of the data variability respectively. All most all locations which identified as a pristine correlated with the HQI and percentage cover of shade. HQI, Dmg and H’ were positively correlated with the PC 2. Locations with poor environmental quality and high anthropogenic disturbances were negatively correlated with the HQI and diversity indices. Relatively disturbed habitats qualities that received high load of urban discharges and low riparian vegetation recorded lowest diversity indexes. Tributary locations where preserve relatively high habitat qualities while habour high species diversity. Healthy aquatic ecosystem provides divers habitats for their inhabitants with stress free environment. Therefore it is timely focus on conservation of the pristine conditions of the natural aquatic habitats while sustainably deriving resources from them for the sake of preserve high biodiversity for the future. Authors thankfully acknowledge for the Financial supports given by the Association of Commonwealth Universities (Early Career Academic Grant Scheme 2016) and Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka
Federal University Oye Ekiti
Title: The growth performance of african catfish clarias gariepinus and beans plant cultivated using a locally constructed recirculatory aquaponics tank in Nigeria.
Time : 03:25-03:50
Chukwu-Osazuwa Joy has completed her MSc. at the age of 26 years from Fisheries Biology and Management program, Marine Science Department, University of Lagos, Nigeria. She is an Assistant lecturer at the federal university oye Ekiti, Ekiti state, Nigeria. She has published a paper in Journal of the Science of Agriculture, Food Technology and the Environment, Ebonyi State University. Volume 12, ISSN: 1596 – 0056, October 2012. 1 – 8pp, titled “Evaluation of Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Seed for Controlling Reproduction in the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)”.
A recirculatory media filled aquaponics tank was constructed using local raw materials obtained from Lagos market, Nigeria. Twenty-five African catfish Clarias gariepinus each were reared in the fish unit of the aquaponics tank and a traditional flow through tank that served as a control for a period of 10 weeks. Five (5) days old beans plants were transplanted from nylon bags to the plant trough of the aquaponics system and also on the field (control) and grown for 10 weeks with the fish. Result shows that there was significant difference (P>0.05) in the length, weight and specific growth rate (SGR) of African catfish Clarias gariepinus reared in both media. There was no significance difference (P<0.05) in the length of beans plant cultivated on the field (control) and in an aquaponic system during the fourth to tenth weeks of culture. However, the leaf width showed significance difference (P>0.05) between both media in week 2 and 3 and weeks 5 to 9 with the aquaponics bean plant having broader leaves than the field beans plant. Beans plants cultivated in the aquaponics system developed beans seed during the 8 to 10 weeks, whereas beans plants cultivated on the field produced no beans seed even at the week 10 of the experiment, this may be attributed to the nitrate level in the plant tank of the aquaponics system. Between the 9th and 10th week of the experiment, some leaves of the beans plant cultivated in the aquaponics system started developing yellowish spots and tiny holes, this was caused by nutrient imbalance as iron, calcium and potassium which is lacking in fish feed and waste was not supplemented to the beans plant in the aquaponics plant unit. Aquaponics technology is a hybrid food growing system with high potentials for tropical plants and fish species and can efficiently replace the traditional system of fish and soil crop production especially in the face of high demand for food, nutrient-depleted soil and insufficient agricultural land space especially in Nigeria.